What is a beam? How the beams are commonly loaded?

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Beam: A beam is a piece of structure which may be
designed to support any type of lead, but in general, It is required to carry the load at the right angle to its longitudinal axis.

What is a beam?
What is a beam?

Beams are commonly loaded with the following types of loads:

Types of loads

A beam may be loaded in a variety of ways. For the analysis purpose, it may be split into three categories:

1.Concentrated or point load.
2. Distributed load:

(i) Uniformly distributed load

(ii)Uniformly varying load

3. Couple

1.Concentrated or point load

A Concentrated or pointed load is one that acts over so small a length that it is assumed to act at a point. Practically, a load can not be placed as knife edge contact but for calculation purposes, we consider that load is being transmitted at a point.

Fig concentrated load represents point loading at points A and B.

concentrated load

Fig. concentrated load

2. Distributed load

A distributed load ats over a finite length of the beam.
A Distributed load may be uniform over the length, or it may be very uniformly
or non-uniformly. Such loads are measured by their intensity which is expressed by
the force per unit distance along the axis of the beam.

Fig distributed load represents distributed loading between points A and B.

Distributed load

(i) Uniformly distributed load

A uniformly distributed load implies a constant intensity of
loading (W). It is generally abbreviated as U.D.L and its unit is KN/m. Fig.
U.D.L Represents a U.D.L between points A and B.

Uniformly Distributed Load

Fig. Uniformly Distributed Load

(ii) Uniformly varying load

A uniformly varying load implies that the intensity if loading increases or decreases at a constant rate along the length.

Wₒ + k. x

Where K is the rate of change of the loading intensity,Wₒis being the loading at the reference point.

uniformly varying load
uniformly varying load

uniformly varying load
uniformly varying load

uniformly varying load
uniformly varying load

Fig. uniformly varying loads.

Such loading is also known as a triangularly distributed
load. Fig. Uniformly varying load represents such a loading between points A
and B. Sometimes, the distributed loading may be parabolic, cubic, or a higher
order curve for non-uniformly varying load i.e.,

W= W + k1 x + k2 x2 (parabolic)

= w
+ k1 X + k2
x2 + k
3 X3 (cubic) and so on.

3. Couple

A beam may Also be Subjeted to a couple ‘’µ” at any point. As Shown in Fig.

Fig. Couple Load

Note: In General, the Load may be a
Combination of Various Types of Loadings.

I hope this Information will help you in studies. Please like and comment if you find it knowledgable.

Best of Luck

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