# What is a beam? How the beams are commonly loaded?

Beam: A beam is a piece of structure which may be
designed to support any type of lead, but in general, It is required to carry the load at the right angle to its longitudinal axis.

A beam may be loaded in a variety of ways. For the analysis purpose, it may be split into three categories:

3. Couple

A Concentrated or pointed load is one that acts over so small a length that it is assumed to act at a point. Practically, a load can not be placed as knife edge contact but for calculation purposes, we consider that load is being transmitted at a point.

A distributed load ats over a finite length of the beam.
A Distributed load may be uniform over the length, or it may be very uniformly
or non-uniformly. Such loads are measured by their intensity which is expressed by
the force per unit distance along the axis of the beam.

A uniformly distributed load implies a constant intensity of
loading (W). It is generally abbreviated as U.D.L and its unit is KN/m. Fig.
U.D.L Represents a U.D.L between points A and B.

A uniformly varying load implies that the intensity if loading increases or decreases at a constant rate along the length.

W=
Wₒ + k. x

and B. Sometimes, the distributed loading may be parabolic, cubic, or a higher
order curve for non-uniformly varying load i.e.,

W= W + k1 x + k2 x2 (parabolic)

W
= w
+ k1 X + k2
x2 + k
3 X3 (cubic) and so on.

## 3. Couple

A beam may Also be Subjeted to a couple ‘’µ” at any point. As Shown in Fig.
couple.

Note: In General, the Load may be a